Saturday, December 10, 2022

What Is Albedo?

 

Albedo is part of the energy from the sunlight that casts back into the atmosphere. These rays have a significant effect on our climate. When the albedo rises, the universe reflects light more and consequently, higher levels of radiation are sent back to space so the Earth cools down. Albedo determines the level of heat on the Earth. It is now well known that most of the light from the sun moves up once it hits the Earth. Research has shown that water absorbs light more thereby reflecting less light. If there is more water compared to a hard surface, then there is less solar emission. The Earth, the moon, or any other planet has the ability to transmit albedo.

What Is Albedo?

Albedo can be defined as a way of quantifying how much radiation is reflected from the surface. It is a comparison between the reflection radiation from the surface to the amount of radiation that hits it. This term also refers to the quantity of radiation generated by electromagnetic rays which consequently reflects away.

Seasonal Effects On Albedo

Summer

To understand albedo better, we look at two scenarios. One, if you walk barefoot on the black soil during summer, you will feel a lot of heat and can even get burnt because the surface is absorbing and retaining more heat. Another person walking on white soil during the same season will not be burnt. This is basically because white surface tends to reflect more heat and absorb very little of it. Equally, if you touch a black car in summer it will feel much hotter than touching a white car. This is because black absorbs and retains heat while white car surface will reflect back the solar rays.

Winter

During this season, it is generally wet with either water or ice. Water reflects approximately 6% of the light and absorbs the rest. Ice, on the other hand, reflects 50% to 60% of the incoming solar heat, thereby remaining cooler. A snow-covered area reflects a lot of radiation, which is why skiers having a risk of getting sunburns while on the slopes. Albedo diminishes when the snow-covered places start to warm up.

How Is Albedo Quantified?

Albedo helps us to know how well a surface reflects solar energy. It is measured on a scale of zero to one (0-1). Surfaces differ in absorbent ability but will always be in the range of between 0-1.

Value “0” - If a score of zero is given, then the conclusion is that the surface is highly receptive to light, meaning that the surface takes in all the light that comes into contact with it. It is characterized by black surfaces.

Value “1” - This score is evidence that the surface does not absorb incoming light. It is characterized by white surfaces.

The albedo of our planet is 0.367, whereas that of the moon stands at 0.12, meaning the moon reflects 12% out of the radiation that falls on it. There are many satellites set up to monitor the planet's albedo by use of sensors which measure the light from the Earth that reflects on the surface of the moon. NASA has set out what is called Terra and Aqua Satellites to assist identify any changes in albedo. 

Thursday, December 8, 2022

Time Is But a Stubborn Illusion - Sneak Peek | Genius


From Executive Producers Brian Grazer and Ron Howard, National Geographic's first scripted anthology series, GENIUS, will focus on Nobel Prize-winning physicist Albert Einstein. The all-star cast includes Geoffrey Rush, Johnny Flynn, and Emily Watson.

Steel From Start to Finish



The Mystery of Matter: “OUT OF THIN AIR”


One of science’s great odd couples — British minister Joseph Priestley and French tax administrator Antoine Lavoisier — together discover a fantastic new gas called oxygen, overturning the reigning theory of chemistry and triggering a worldwide search for new elements. Soon caught up in the hunt is science’s first great showman, a precocious British chemist named Humphry Davy, who dazzles London audiences with his lectures, introduces them to laughing gas and turns the battery into a powerful tool in the search for new elements. The Mystery of Matter: Search for the Elements is an exciting series about one of the great adventures in the history of science: the long and continuing quest to understand what the world is made of. Three episodes tell the story of seven of history’s most important scientists as they seek to identify, understand and organize the basic building blocks of matter. The Mystery of Matter: Search for the Elements shows us not only what these scientific explorers discovered but also how,using actors to reveal the creative process through the scientists’ own words and conveying their landmark discoveries through re-enactments shot with replicas of their original lab equipment. Knitting these strands together is host Michael Emerson, a two-time Emmy Award-winning actor. Meet Joseph Priestley and Antoine Lavoisier, whose discovery of oxygen led to the modern science of chemistry, and Humphry Davy, who made electricity a powerful new tool in the search for elements. Watch Dmitri Mendeleev invent the Periodic Table, and see Marie Curie’s groundbreaking research on radioactivity crack open a window into the atom. The Mystery of Matter: Search for the Elements brings the history of science to life for today’s television audience.


The Mystery of Matter: “INTO THE ATOM”


Caught up in the race to discover the atom’s internal parts — and learn how they fit together — a young British physicist, Harry Moseley, uses newly discovered X-rays to put the Periodic Table in a whole new light. And a young American chemist named Glenn Seaborg creates a new element — plutonium — that changes the world forever, unleashing a force of unimaginable destructive power: the atomic bomb. The Mystery of Matter: Search for the Elements is an exciting series about one of the great adventures in the history of science: the long and continuing quest to understand what the world is made of. Three episodes tell the story of seven of history’s most important scientists as they seek to identify, understand and organize the basic building blocks of matter. The Mystery of Matter: Search for the Elements shows us not only what these scientific explorers discovered but also how,using actors to reveal the creative process through the scientists’ own words and conveying their landmark discoveries through re-enactments shot with replicas of their original lab equipment. Knitting these strands together is host Michael Emerson, a two-time Emmy Award-winning actor. Meet Joseph Priestley and Antoine Lavoisier, whose discovery of oxygen led to the modern science of chemistry, and Humphry Davy, who made electricity a powerful new tool in the search for elements. Watch Dmitri Mendeleev invent the Periodic Table, and see Marie Curie’s groundbreaking research on radioactivity crack open a window into the atom. Learn how Harry Moseley’s investigation of atomic number redefined the Periodic Table, and how Glenn Seaborg’s discovery of plutonium opened up a whole new realm of elements still being explored today. The Mystery of Matter: Search for the Elements brings the history of science to life for today’s television audience.

The Mystery of Matter: “UNRULY ELEMENTS”


Over a single weekend in 1869, a young Russian chemistry professor named Dmitri Mendeleev invents the Periodic Table, bringing order to the growing gaggle of elements. But this sense of order is shattered when a Polish graduate student named Marie Sklodowska Curie discovers radioactivity, revealing that elements can change identities — and that atoms must have undiscovered parts inside them. The Mystery of Matter: Search for the Elements is an exciting series about one of the great adventures in the history of science: the long and continuing quest to understand what the world is made of. Three episodes tell the story of seven of history’s most important scientists as they seek to identify, understand and organize the basic building blocks of matter. The Mystery of Matter: Search for the Elements shows us not only what these scientific explorers discovered but also how,using actors to reveal the creative process through the scientists’ own words and conveying their landmark discoveries through re-enactments shot with replicas of their original lab equipment. Knitting these strands together is host Michael Emerson, a two-time Emmy Award-winning actor. Meet Joseph Priestley and Antoine Lavoisier, whose discovery of oxygen led to the modern science of chemistry, and Humphry Davy, who made electricity a powerful new tool in the search for elements. Watch Dmitri Mendeleev invent the Periodic Table, and see Marie Curie’s groundbreaking research on radioactivity crack open a window into the atom. Learn how Harry Moseley’s investigation of atomic number redefined the Periodic Table, and how Glenn Seaborg’s discovery of plutonium opened up a whole new realm of elements still being explored today. The Mystery of Matter: Search for the Elements brings the history of science to life for today’s television audience.

Sunday, December 4, 2022

Portrait of an engineer - 1954


Filmed just prior to the introduction of British Railways 'Modernization Plan', this educational film follows production engineer Ted Wilson as he goes through a typical day at the Vulcan Foundry in Newton-le-Willows, Lancashire, during the early 1950's.
 

Kashi Tamil Sangamam


Daily Pulse: 3rd December - Highlights A day filled with spirituality, knowledge, dance, culture and pure joy. #KashiTamilSangamam #VanakkamKashi
 

Inside India: Village Life in Southern India


A movie by filmaker Ellis Dungan that documents life in southern India. The film is from the collection of the West Virginia State Archives. Ellis R. Dungan was a film maker who lived in Wheeling, West Virginia. After studying cinematography and motion picture production at the University of Southern California, Dungan was invited by a classmate to Indian where his film career was launched. This selection of film contains some of the footage from India.

Meet Sankaralinga from Kanyakumari


He skilfully weaves a unique style of garland from roses giving it a distinctive red ruby appearance. Get a glimpse of his work at the #KashiTamilSangamam#VanakkamKashi

Kashi Tamil Sangamam 2022


This Karthigai month, come join us for the Kashi Tamil Sangmam 2022, an initiative by Government of India as a part of Azadi ka Amrit Mahotsav. The event will be held from 17th Nov – 16th Dec 2022 to rediscover the connect between Kashi & Tamil Nadu, the two ancient centers of knowledge, culture and heritage

Story of Modern Wiper Technology

Thursday, December 1, 2022

Flash of Genius. Story of an Inventor -Modern wiper technology

How Robert Kearns Took on Ford and Chrysler and Won

Robert Kearns invented and patented the intermittent windshield wiper only to see his invention show up in Ford, Chrysler and Mercedes-Benz cars. Then he got mad. 


The story of the lone inventor has shaped our understanding of the industrial revolution and the information age. We've all heard the stories of Thomas Edison working tirelessly to perfect his light bulb, and Steve Wozniak pouring over schematics to create the Apple computer.

We also know the fame and fortune these inventors have received as a result of their hard work and ingenuity. But, what happens when an inventor creates a useful invention, patents it, and tries to sell it, only to see his invention stolen by the very companies he tried to sell it to?

In 1953, newly graduated mechanical engineer Robert William Kearns and his new wife Phyllis, were on their honeymoon in Ontario, Canada. During a celebration, a champagne bottle was opened, and its cork flew across the room, striking Kearns in the left eye. The accident caused Kearns to lose most of the vision in that eye.

During his recuperation, Kearn began thinking about the mechanics of the eye, and especially about the eyelid. An eyelid doesn't blink at a predetermined rate, but rather moves when the eye is dry or when a foreign object, such as dust, lands on the surface of the eye.

Kearns reasoned that the windshield wiper of a car should act like an eyelid, altering its wiping rate as the rain and road conditions changed.

Ten Years of Tinkering

For the next ten years, Kearns developed and refined his new intermittent windshield wiper concept. Building a laboratory in his basement, he constructed models using the dashboards of salvaged cars to test and refine his invention.

In 1963, Kearns retrofitted his intermittent windshield wiper onto a running Ford Galaxie convertible, and drove it to the Ford factory in Dearborn, Michigan. Ford was one of the "big three" automobile manufacturers, along with General Motors and Chrysler.

According to Kearns, the Ford managers he met with that day seemed interested in his invention, but were noncommittal. They did, however, call him in for a second meeting.

At this second meeting at Ford, Kearns was greeted by a phalanx of engineers, eager to question him on his intermittent windshield wiper, and to show him, albeit at a distance, an intermittent windshield wiper system of their own. Ford was planning on installing intermittent windshield wipers in its Mercury line of cars.

Feeling a kinship with his fellow engineers, and thinking a deal with Ford was in the offing, Kearns revealed many of the inner workings of his wiper design to the Ford engineers.

Two Years Go By

For the next two years, Kearns met periodically with groups of Ford engineers to discuss intermittent wiper technology, but no offer was made to him to license his technology, or to partner with him in any way. Then, at the end of 1965, Ford stopped calling Robert Kearns altogether.

In 1969, the Ford Motor Company introduced the first electronic intermittent windshield wiper. Kearns, still believing that a deal with Ford was possible, and that Ford was acting in good faith, didn't question Ford's intentions until 1976.

A Shocking Discovery

Kearns spent the early 1970s working as an engineer at the U.S. National Bureau of Standards, and his intermittent windshield wiper was put on the back burner. Then, in 1976, Kearns' eldest son, Dennis Kearns, acquired an intermittent wiper control box used by Mercedes-Benz. Reverse engineering the Mercedes box, Kearns realized that the design was a literal copy of his patented invention.

Pouring over the patent filings from Ford, Volkswagen, Renault, General Motors, Mercedes-Benz and others, Kearns recognized that they had all simply copied and pasted several key elements of his design and incorporated them into their own patent filings.

Kearns was crushed and angry that companies he had admired his whole life were stealing from him without regard for his rights as the patent holder for the invention of the intermittent windshield wiper. Kearns described the companies' behavior as, "Bob Kearns doesn't count. He's nothing. He doesn't exist."

Kearns Fights Back

From 1977 onward, Kearns referred to his occupation as "litigant." He filed lawsuits against Ford, Chrysler, General Motors, and several European carmakers, including Mercedes-Benz.

As the legal cases worked their way through the courts, the stress on Kearns and his family mounted. He suffered a nervous breakdown and spent several weeks in a hospital. His long marriage to wife Phyllis ended.

The financial cost of taking on the auto giants weighed heavily on Kearns, and in several cases, he represented himself in court. This may have lead to the dismissal of a number of cases due to missed deadlines, and a lack of court-ordered filings being presented to the court.

And the Decision Is ...

Finally, in 1990, after more than a decade in the legal system, the Ford Motor Company agreed to settle with Robert Kearns for $10.2 million. In 1992, Kearns won a judgment against Chrysler for $30 million. Chrysler appealed the decision, but it was upheld when the U.S. Supreme Court refused to hear Chrysler's appeal.

In 2005, Robert Kearns died of brain cancer. In 2008, Universal Pictures released the film "Flash of Genius," a retelling of Kearns' story that starred Greg Kinnear as Kearns.



Bloom out of the darkness

Be a loner. That gives you time to wonder

The CODISSIA Defence Innovation and Atal Incubation Centre (CDIIC) and the Indian Army will organise in Coimbatore on May 28 and 29 the “Southern Star Army Academia Industry Interface”.

pic.twitter.com/Tq0SvD9UHL — Selvaraj Venkatesan (@niftytelevision) May 25, 2024 The "Southern Star Army Academia Industry Interface&qu...